FDA

Ready Or Not, Here It Comes: The FDA’s Attempt to Regulate the e-Cigarette Industry

by Dylan Quinn, UMN Law Student, MJLST Staff

While the United States partial government shutdown created widespread uncertainty for federal employees and the monetary system, some are worried that the shutdown may cause the FDA to miss its self-imposed October 31, 2013 deadline for releasing the highly anticipated e-cigarette regulations. The FDA has already failed to meet its initial, self-imposed deadline of April 2013. While there are clearly no penalties for missing a self-imposed deadline, there are increasing external pressures that may force the FDA into action before the agency has a full grasp of the issues surrounding e-cigarettes.

It is estimated that e-cigarette sales in the U.S. will reach $1.7 Billion this year. E-cigarette use by students in middle and high school more than doubled from 2011 to 2012, according to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. They have become so popular that the use of the e-cigarette product has been coined, “vaping“.

While the FDA regulates e-cigarettes that are marketed for therapeutic purposes, it has made clear that it intends to treat e-cigarettes as a “tobacco product”, and establish regulatory control over the entire industry. However, by seemingly having this plan for years, the question arises of why the agency is on the brink of missing another deadline. The practical, and probable, answer is that the agency has no idea how to approach (or regulate) e-cigarettes.

Earlier this month the European Parliament took a “permissive approach” to e-cigarettes by shooting down proposals that called for strict regulation. European law makers seem to be influenced by the potential of e-cigarettes to be a healthy alternative to smoking, and are likely hesitant to place constraints on an industry that offers immense potential benefit to public health.

While the U.S. may benefit from taking the same approach, many think that the e-cigarettes are making nicotine addiction worse among youth, and there seems to be added pressure on the FDA to tightly regulate the industry. Just last month, Attorneys General from 41 states urged the FDA to issue the promised regulations, and there have been months of talks over a possible ban of online e-cigarette sales. However, the Obama Administration has just recently announced a significant funding program to operate 14 research centers focused on regulatory policy over tobacco products, and the FDA has expressly stated that more research is needed in regards to e-cigarettes.

There is no doubt that the public health impacts of e-cigarettes are not fully understood, and while this may not be a good enough reason to hold off strict regulation, the FDA may simply not know enough to effectively regulate the industry. Although continually missing deadlines, and gaining a better understanding, may lead to better regulation in the long run, the external pressures facing the FDA will not allow it to put off the regulations for much longer.


Is Food the New Tobacco: Science, Advertising, and the War against Obesity?

by George David Kidd, UMN Law Student, MJLST Staff

Thumbnail-George-Kidd.jpgFood-Poster.jpgGlobally, obesity and its underlying ailments have overtaken tobacco as the top preventable cause of death. But, while eating right and exercising might go a long way towards solving the problem, the solution might not be that simple. What drives consumer buying behavior, through more modern forms of how we interact with the world, might substantiate food science and advertising as powerful mechanisms to attack the obesity epidemic.

In Food Advertising and Childhood Obesity: A Call for Action for Proactive Solutions, published in Issue 12.2 of the Minnesota Journal of Law, Science & Technology, life and health sciences author Roseann Termini and others add advertising to the already-large list of “other” factors affecting childhood obesity rates. Indeed, children are not as informed as adults about health and may be more likely influenced by certain channels of advertising, such as television. To address this concern, one of her proposed solutions is to ban, regulate, or even shift tax structure in order to control advertising that specifically targets children. While this might be an effective mechanism to reduce demand, it may only be a partial solution. For one, because children are not, generally, the direct purchaser of food, but rather depend upon parents, to what extent does advertising actually affect the buying decisions of parents?

An article recently mentioned in The New York Times, The Extraordinary Science of Addictive Junk Food, might help answer this question. Mr. Moss similarly explores the “obesity epidemic,” but from a corporate standpoint, positing that consumers are primarily driven to buy what “tastes good.” While Mr. Moss’s article also agrees that advertising is part of the problem, he paints a more complete picture of what might be the underlying cause of parental acquiescence in a child’s poor dietary choices. The perfect combination of salt, fat, and sugar might be, in part, to blame as addicting foods that influence buying behavior. In this way, food is likened to tobacco, except, unfortunately, while people can choose whether to begin smoking, all people must eat.
While the analogy between food and tobacco may be imperfect, the point is there. If the majority of the food available to the everyday consumer is manufactured as addicting, to what degree is there a choice to eat healthy? If, in order to survive in the marketplace, a corporation has to manufacture “addicting” foods to compete, how can we make these addicting foods into disease-preventing rather than disease-aiding choices? Food science and advertising may contain the answer.


United States v. Caronia After-The-Fact: What Was All That Fuss About, Again?

by Ashley Zborowsky, UMN Law Student, MJLST Notes & Comments Editor

Thumbnail-Ashley-Zborowsky.jpgIn a split decision on December 3, 2012, the Second Circuit issued its long-awaited opinion in U.S. v. Caronia–a case concerning off-label promotion and commercial free speech. The 2011 U.S. Supreme Court holding in Sorrell v. IMS Health acknowledging off-label promotion to be “per se” protected under the First Amendment marked a significant shift in this area of law. Previously, the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) was able to recover billions of dollars in penalties from manufacturers engaged in off-label promotion, or the act of promoting regulated products for uses other than those approved by the agency. Despite other challenges on constitutional grounds, the FDA has been successful at defending its current practice–that is, until recently.

After Sorrell, it was unclear how the Second Circuit would apply this precedent in Caronia. For a robust discussion of the holding in Sorrell and alternate regulatory pathways to mitigate the effects of constitutional challenges to FDA authority, see Rethinking Off-Label Regulation in the Wake of Sorrell v. IMS Health: Can State Involvement Compensate for Waning FDA Authority to Curb Commercial Free Speech? Much to the agency’s chagrin, the Second Circuit found that truthful, non-misleading off-label speech is in fact protected by the First Amendment and therefore cannot be prosecuted under the Federal Food, Drug and Cosmetics Act (FDCA). Although the circuit court opinion is not binding outside of its jurisdiction and is only one early example of how Sorrell will be interpreted by lower courts, the Caronia decision signals potentially diminishing regulatory authority in this realm.

To be sure, the gradual constitutional erosion of its authority to police purported FDCA violations is a viable cause for concern–but is it imminent? Though analysts predicted a more panicked response on behalf of the agency, the FDA has apparently decided not to petition the U.S. Supreme Court for certiorari, stating that the agency “does not believe. . . the Caronia decision will significantly affect [ its] enforcement” of off-label promotion. Because of its limited precedential value and the fact that both Sorrell and Caronia only recognize speech that is truthful and non-misleading as protected, the Second Circuit decision may have very little practical effect. In fact just last month in a related case out of the Ninth Circuit, U.S. v. Harkonen, the court chose to ignore Caronia altogether–asserting that the First Amendment does not protect “fraudulent speech.”

While off-label promotion itself cannot form the basis of an FDCA violation under Caronia, it may still be introduced as evidence of criminal misbranding. As such, it seems that the Caronia uproar could have all been for naught. The FDA’s reaction (or lack thereof) to the Second Circuit’s holding indicates that this is likely true. If nothing else, however, Caronia will surely increase the number of constitutional challenges to FDA enforcement activity, forcing the agency to reexamine its priorities. Thus, while Caronia has the potential for wide-ranging implications down the line, industry stakeholders will just have to wait and see. Although Caronia has done little to alter the regulatory landscape presently, it may only be a matter of time before a circuit split begins to evolve.


Reviving GRAS(E): Bringing Reform to the Drug Approval Process

by Maya Suresh, UMN Law Student, MJLST Staff

Thumbnail-Maya-Suresh.jpgBringing new drugs to the market has turned into a time consuming and costly process. Resulting in a process that takes roughly 12 years and 1.2 billion dollars to develop a single new drug and move it through the approval process, the current laws administered by the FDA have the potential to stifle potential economic growth. Current laws and FDA regulations require new drugs to go through three phases of clinical trials focusing on safety, optimal dosage, and effectiveness. It is in the prolonged third phase (where effectiveness is tested through extensive clinical trials) that many manufacturers decide to pull the drug from the program as the clinical trials threaten the firm’s financial viability. Ultimately, it is consumers that are hurt by the process, as they are unable to benefit from the drugs.

The negative effect on consumers is what Emily Puchalski hopes to eliminate with the recommendation detailed in her note published in Issue 14.1 of the Minnesota Journal of Law, Science & Technology. In “Bringing Dormant GRAS(E) to Bloom: Reviving The GRASE Concept for Drugs,” Puchalski suggests that a revival of the Food and Drug Administration’s (FDA) “generally recognized as safe and effective” laws and regulations, commonly reffered to as “GRASE”, could minimize the negative effects on consumers. Many drugs, once discovered, have formulations found in earlier drugs that have already been established as safe for consumer use. The GRASE law is grounded in this understanding, and provides a way for these “already established as safe” drugs to get to the market quicker without having to go through extensive clinical trials.

The problem with GRASE however, is that it is very difficult for a drug to achieve GRASE status. Due to this difficulty, GRASE has fallen out of use as manufacturers have stopped trying to achieve the status. Puchalski suggests that if the FDA were to revive GRASE, it could convince manufacturers to apply for GRASE status, allowing already established safe and effective drugs to come to market more quickly, thus benefiting consumers.

It would appear that Puchalski’s recommendation is being heard. In late February Micropharma Limited was able to obtain GRASE status for their new heart health probiotic. Ryan Jones, CEO of Micropharma Limited, echoed Puchalski when he spoke of the benefits the company has been able to reap with the highly coveted status. GRASE status will allow the company to accelerate development of the drug within both the United States and international markets. Further, it provides strong reputational benefits for the company, as it makes clear to the public that Micropharma is committed to investing a significant amount of time and energy into providing safe and effective drugs to the market.

The ability for Micropharma to obtain GRASE status could serve as evidence of a potentially reformed drug approval process. However, the full benefits realized by consumers and the market will only become clear with time.


Food Label Regulations Fall Short

by Bobbi Leal, UMN Law Student, MJLST Articles Editor

Thumbnail-Bobbi-Leal-ii.jpgA recent study, published in Agricultural Economics, found that the average body mass index for consumers that read nutrition labels is lower than those that do not read the labels. This finding implies that understanding and utilizing food and nutrition labels provides consumers with the information needed to make informed decisions about what they eat. However, a recent article by J.C. Horvath published in the Minnesota Journal of Law, Science & Technology, “How Can Better Food Labels Contribute to True Choice?” makes evident that food labeling has a long way to go before it truly gives consumers the information necessary to make informed decisions.

Food label regulations, outlined by the Food and Drug Administration, have a number of flaws. The FDA has declined to define strict standards for use of the food label “all-natural,” claiming that the term is too nebulous to be strictly defined and standardized across the entire food industry. Undoubtedly, consumers assume that a food labeled as “all-natural” has not been chemically processed or structurally altered from its natural state. Unfortunately, this is not the case. The FDA has a vague policy which defines the term “natural,” to mean “nothing artificial or synthetic…is included in, or has been added to, the product that would not normally be expected to be there.” According to the Wall Street Journal, some ingredients that have been labeled as “all-natural” include high fructose corn syrup, genetically modified plants, and sodium benzoate.

Similarly, the approved use of certain terms, such as “artificial flavor,” “natural flavor,” and “artificial coloring” often hide significant details about the nature of the food. These three phrases can stand in for over 3900 food additives that come from a wide range of sources, giving the consumer no real notice of the substance or origin of the “flavor” or “coloring.” For example, beef tallow, gelatin, and lard can all be covered by these three phrases. Even the requirements for listing allergens is incomplete, as the FDA only requires that eight of the known allergic-reaction-inducing ingredients be explicitly listed: milk, eggs, fish, Crustacean shellfish, tree nuts, peanuts, wheat, and soybeans.

This recent study concerning the use of nutrition labels makes clear that when consumers read and understand food labels, they can make better choices for their health. In order for this to occur, however, it is imperative that the food labels which consumers rely upon are transparent and accurate. Food label regulations have not yet accomplished this objective.


FDA Approvals are a Matter of Life and Death

Sapien-Transcatheter-Heart-Valve.jpg
mjlst-logo-button.pngMJLST faculty editor-in-chief Ralph Hall and Andrew Von Eschenbach, former commissioner of the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (2005-2009), wrote an opinion piece in the June 18 Wall Street Journal on ways to move medical devices more quickly into the hands of health care practitioners. They cite the example of the American-made SAPIEN Transcatheter Heart Valve (pictured right) that was available to patients in Europe four years before those in the United States. Read “FDA Approvals Are a Matter of Life and Death” (WSJ). (NOTE: the WSJ article can be viewed in full by using Google to search “FDA Approvals Are a Matter of Life and Death” and then clicking the first link to WSJ in the results.).

In a related article in MJLST issue 13.1, Professor Hall and Eva Stensvad outlined problems with the 510(k) medical device clearance process and argued that while the Institute of Medicine (IOM) is generally an invaluable policy resource, invaluable policy resource, its Committee on the Public Health Effectiveness of the FDA 510(k) Clearance Process is not fairly balanced and unable to fairly and accurately perform its duties. Read: Left to Their Own Devices: IOM’s Medical Device Committee’s Failure to Comply.