New Technology

Navigating the Future of Self-Driving Car Insurance Coverage

Nathan Vanderlaan, MJLST Staffer

Autonomous vehicle technology is not new to the automotive industry. For the most part however, most of these technologies have been incorporated as back-up measures for when human error leads to poor driving. For instance, car manufactures have offered packages that incorporate features such as blind-spot monitoring, forward-collision warnings with automatic breaking, as well as lane-departure warnings and prevention. However, the recent push by companies like Google, Uber, Tesla, Ford and Volvo are making the possibility of fully autonomous vehicles a near-future reality.

Autonomous vehicles will arguably be the next greatest technology, that will be responsible for saving countless lives. According to alertdriving.com, over 90 percent of accidents are the result of human error. By taking human error out of the driving equation, The Atlantic estimates that the full implementation of automated cars could save up to 300,000 lives a decade in the United States alone. In a show of federal support, U.S. Transportation Secretary Anthony Foxx released an update in January 2016 to the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration’s (NHTSA) stance on Autonomous Vehicles, promulgating a set of 15 standards to be followed by car manufactures in developing such technologies. Further, in March 2016, the NHSTA promised $3.9 billion dollars in funding over 10 years to “support the development and adoption of safe vehicle automation.” As the world makes the push for fully autonomous vehicles, the insurance industry will have to respond to the changing nature of vehicular transportation.

One of the companies leading the innovative charge is Tesla. New Tesla models may now come equipped with an “autopilot” feature. This feature incorporates multiple external sensors that relay real-time data to a computer that navigates the vehicle in most highway situations.  It allows the car to slow down when it encounters obstacles, as well as change lanes when necessary. Elon Musk, Tesla’s CEO estimates that the autopilot feature is able to reduce Tesla driver accidents by as much as 50 percent. Still, the system is not without issue. This past June, a user of the autopilot system was killed when his car collided with a tractor trailer that the car’s sensors failed to detect. Tesla quickly distributed a software operating system that he claims would have been able to detect the trailer. The accident has quickly prompted the discussion of how insurance claims and coverage will adapt to accidents in which the owners of a vehicle are no longer cause of such accidents.

Auto Insurance is a state regulated industry. Currently, there are two significant insurance models: no-fault concepts, and the tort system. While each state system has many differences, each model has the same over-arching structure. No-fault insurance models require the insurer to pay parties injured in an accident regardless of fault. Under the tort system, the insurer of the party who is responsible for the accident foots the bill. Under both systems however, the majority of insurance premium costs are derived from personal liability coverage. A significant portion of insurance coverage structure is premised on the notion that drivers cause accidents. But when the driver is taken out of the equation, the basic concept behind automotive insurance changes.

 

What seems to be the most logical response to the implementation of fully-autonomous vehicles is to hold the manufacture liable. Whenever a car crashes that is engaged in a self-driving feature, it can be presumed that the crash was caused by a manufacturing defect. The injured party would then instigate a products-liability action to recover for damages suffered during the accident. Yet this system ignores some important realities. One such reality is that manufactures will likely place the new cost on the consumer in the purchase price of the car. These costs could leave a car outside the average consumer’s price range, and could hinder the wide-spread implementation of a safer automotive alternative to human-driven cars. Even if manufactures don’t rely on consumers to cover the bill, the new system will likely require new forms of regulation to protect car manufactures from going under due to overwhelming judgments in the courts.

Perhaps a more effective method of insurance coverage has been proposed by RAND, a company that specializes in evaluating and suggesting how best to utilize new technologies. RAND has suggested that a universal no-fault system be implemented for autonomous vehicle owners. Under such a system, autonomous car drivers would still pay premiums, but such premiums would be significantly lower as accident rates decrease. It is likely that for this system to work, regulation would have to come from the federal level to insure the policy is followed universally in the United States. One such company that has begun a system mirroring this philosophy is Adrian Flux in Britain. This insurer offers a plan for drivers of semi-autonomous vehicles that is lower in price than traditional insurance plans. Adrian Flux has also announced that it would update its policies as both the liability debate and driverless technology evolves.

No matter the route chosen by regulators or insurance companies, the issue of autonomous car insurance likely won’t arise until 2020 when Volvo plans to place commercial, fully-autonomous vehicles on the market. Even still, it could be decades before a majority of vehicles on the street have such capabilities. This time will give regulators, insurers, and manufactures alike, adequate time to develop a system that will best propel our nation towards a safer, autonomous automotive society.


Digital Health and Legal Aid: The Lawyer Will Skype You Now

Angela Fralish, MJLST Invited Blogger

According to Dr. Shirley Musich’s research article: Homebound Older Adults: Prevalence, Characteristics, Health Care Utilization and Quality of Care, homebound patients are among the top 5% of medical service users with persistently high expenses. As it stands, about 3.6 million homebound Americans are in need of continuous medical care, but with the cost of healthcare rising, the number of elderly people retiring, hospitals closing in increasing numbers and physician shortages anticipated, caring for the homebound is becoming expensive and impractical. In an article titled Care of the Chronically Ill at Home: An Unresolved Dilemma in Health Policy for the United States, author Karen Buhler-Wilkerson notes that even after two centuries of various experiments to deliver and finance home health care, there are still too many unresolved issues.

One potential solution could be at the crossroads of technology, medicine and law. Telemedicine is a well-known medical technology providing cost effective medical care for the homebound. Becker’s reports that telemedicine visits are often more affordable, and access is a very important component, both in the sense of enabling patients to communicate through a smartphone, and the ability for clinicians to reach patients at a distance, particularly those for whom travel to a hospital on a weekly basis for necessary follow-ups or check-ins would be costly and is not feasible. Telemedicine is a form of affordable technology reaching homebound patients.

Legal aid organizations are also beginning to integrate virtual services for the homebound. For example, at Illinois Legal Aid Online, clients are able to have a live consultation with a legal professional, and in Maryland, a virtual courthouse is used for alternative dispute resolution proceedings. Some states, such as Alaska and New York, have advocated for virtual consults and hearings as part of a best practices model. On September 22nd of this year, the ABA launched a free virtual legal advice clinic to operate as an online version of a walk in clinic. However, despite these responsive measures, virtual technology for legal aid is expensive and burdensome.

But what about the cancer patient who can’t get out of bed to come in for a legal aid appointment, but needs help with a disability claim to pay their medical bills? Could diversifying telehealth user interfaces help cure the accessibility gap for both medicine and law?

Some organizations have already begun collaborations to address these issues. Medical Legal Partnerships work together to provide comprehensive care through cost effective resource pooling of business funds and federal and corporate grant money. Partnerships resolve the sociolegal determinants impacting the health of a patient. One classic case example is the homebound patient with aggravated asthma living in a house with mold spores.  A lawyer works to get the housing up to code, which reduces the asthma, and consequently future medical costs. Lawyers resolve the economic factors perpetuating a health condition while physicians treat it biologically. These partnerships are being implemented nationwide because of their proven results in decreasing the cost of care. In the case of telehealth, the homebound asthmatic patient, could log on to their computer, or work through an app on their phone, to show the attorney the living conditions in high resolution, in addition to receiving medical treatment.

The government seems to be favorable to these resolutions. The Health Resources and Services Administration allocated $18 million to health center collaborations seeking to improve quality care through health information technology. Further, the FDA has created the Digital Health program to encourage and foster collaborations in technologies to promote public health. Last year alone, Congress awarded $4 million to the Legal Services Corporation, who then disbursed that money among 15 legal aid organizations, many of which “will use technology to connect low-income populations to resources and services.” Telehealth innovation is a cornerstone for medical and legal professions committed to improvements in low cost quality patient care, especially for the homebound.

Medical facilities could even extend this same technology profitably by offering patients an in-house “attorney consult” service to improve quality of care. Much like the invention of the convenient cordless phone, a telehealth phone could be used in house or outpatient to give a health organization a leading market edge in addition to decreasing costs. Technology has yet to fully develop the number of ways that telehealth can be used to deliver legal services to improve healthcare.

So if there is a multidisciplinary call for digital aid, why aren’t we seeing more of it on a daily basis? For one, the regulatory law landscape may cause confusion. The FDA governs medical devices, the FTC regulates PHI data breaches and the FCC governs devices using broadcast services or electromagnetic spectrum. Telehealth touches on all of these and results in jurisdictional overlap amongst regulatory agencies. Other reasons may involve resistance to new technology and ever-evolving legislation and policies. In Teladoc, Inc., v. Texas Medical Board, a standard of care issue was raised when the medical board issued an injunction for physicians who prescribed medicine, but had not yet seen the patient in person. One physician in the case stated that without telehealth, his homebound patient would receive no treatment. Transitioning from traditional in person consultations to virtual assistance can greatly improve the health of patient, but has brought an entourage of notable concerns.

Allegedly, the use of telehealth was first executed by Alexander Graham Bell in 1876 when he made a phone call to his doctor. Over 140 years later, this technology is used by NASA for outer space health consults. While the technology is still relatively new, especially for collaborative patient treatment by doctors and lawyers, used wisely, it can be an interdisciplinary collaborative renaissance in using technology to improve healthcare systems and patient lives.

From all perspectives, virtual aid is well funded future component of both the medical and legal fields. It can be used in the legal sense to help people in need, in the business sense as an ancillary convenience service generating profits, or in the medical sense to provide care for the homebound. The trick will be to find engineers who can secure multiuse interfaces while meeting federal regulations and public demand. Only time will tell if such a tool can be efficiently developed.


Permissionless Innovation or Precautionary Principle: The Policy Menu of the Future

Ethan Konschuh, MJLST Staffer

In their recent paper, Guns, Limbs, and Toys: What Future for 3D Printing?, published in the Minnesota Journal of Law, Science, and Technology Volume 17, Issue 2, Adam Thierer and Adam Marcus discussed the potential regulatory frameworks for technological innovations that could spur what they call “the next great industrial revolution.”  They believe that 3D printing, one such innovation, could offer such great benefits that it could significantly enhance global welfare.  However, they worry that preemptive regulations on the technology could undermine these benefits before giving them a chance to be realized.  The paper advocates for a method of regulation called “permissionless innovation,” as opposed to regulations following the “precautionary principle.”  While there are many pros to the former, it could leave unchecked the risks curtailed by the latter.

“Permissionless innovation refers to the notion that experimentation with new technologies and business models should generally be permitted by default.”  It follows from the idea that unless a compelling case can be made that a new invention will bring serious harm to society, innovation should be allowed to continue unabated, and problems, should they arise, can be addressed later.  The authors point to numerous benefits of this approach with respect to emerging technologies.  One of the most obvious benefits is that this type of regulatory framework does not prematurely inhibit potential benefits.  “Regulatory systems based on precautionary thinking focus on preemptive remedies that aim to predict the future and its hypothetical problems. But if public policy is rooted in fear of hypothetical worst-case scenarios, it means that best-case scenarios will never come about.”  It would also preserve the modern startup culture where “just about anyone can afford to launch a business.”  Implementing a framework based on the precautionary principle will create barriers to entry and raise the cost of innovation.  This would also reduce the ability to maximize competitive advantage through trial and error, which refines the technology and efficient allocation of resources for development.  As an example of the potential detriments to competitive advantage from preemptive regulation, the authors point to the different policies of the Europe and the U.S. in the mid-nineties internet explosion where the former preemptively regulated and the latter allowed for permissionless innovation, resulting in the U.S. being a global leader in information technologies and Europe lagging far behind.

An alternative regulatory approach discussed in the article is based on the precautionary principle, which generally refers to the belief that new innovations should be curtailed or disallowed until it can be proven that they will not cause harm.  This approach, while posing problems of its own discussed above, would solve some of the problems arising under permissionless innovation.  While there are many economic and social benefits to permissionless innovation as the bedrock on which policy rests, it inherently allows for the “error” half of “trial and error.”  The whole concept is rooted in the idea of ex post regulation, creating policy to correct for problems that have already occurred.  While traditionally, as shown through the internet regulation difference and outcome between Europe and the U.S., the risk of error has not outweighed the benefits that result, new technologies pose new risks.

For example, in the realm of 3D printing, one of the hot topics is 3D printed firearms.  Current laws would not make 3D printed guns illegal, as most regulations focus on the sale and distribution of firearms, not creation for personal use.  The reasons why it might be more prudent to adopt a precautionary principle approach to regulating this technology are obvious.  To adopt an ex post approach to something that could have such dire consequences could be disastrous, especially considering the amount of time required to adopt policy and implement regulations.  Permissionless innovation could thus become a sort of self-fulfilling prophecy in that major tragedies resulting from 3D printing could result in exactly what advocates of permissionless innovation seek to prevent in the first place: strict regulation that undermines the development of the technology.

The debate will likely heat up as technology continues to develop.  In the era of self-driving cars, private drones, big data, and other technologies that continue to change the way that humans interact with the world around them, 3D printing is not the only area in which this discussion will arise.  The policy decisions that will be made in the next few years will have far reaching consequences that are difficult to predict.  Do the economic and social benefits of being able to manufacture goods at home outweigh the risks of legal, discrete self-armament and its consequences?  The proverbial pill may be too large for some to swallow.


EmDrives: The End of Newtonian Physics?

Peter Selness, MJLST Staffer

The EmDrive has been the center of much controversy over the past decade, and rightfully so.  But what exactly is an EmDrive, and why does it have the scientific community at odds with one another over the underlying science behind it?  The EmDrive is a type of propulsion system that was first designed by Roger Shawyer in 2001.  Essentially, it is a RF resonant cavity thruster that relies on electro magnetic radiation projected into the cavity of a cone to produce thrust.

The EmDrive was met with no small amount of criticism when first proposed because it is what is known as a propellantless propulsion system in that it consumes no fuel when producing thrust.  Not only does it consume no fuel, however, it also appears to only produce force in one direction, thus contradicting Newton’s third law of “for every action there is an equal and opposite reaction.”  Such a proposition has been compared to standing on the deck of a sailboat and pushing on the mast to propel it across a lake, or the old adage of “pulling yourself up by your bootstraps.”  The implications of such a device means that our understanding of physics as it relates to Newton’s third law (which has been relied upon for centuries) is either not entirely understood yet by humanity, or is completely wrong; which is largely why the EmDrive has received such criticism from the scientific community.

And yet, there are multiple confirmed reports of EmDrive testing resulting in this unexplainable thrust that have arisen independently from Roger Shawyer.  Even NASA conducted testing on EmDrives in 2014 and reported measuring a thrust produced by the device.  A similar experiment was then carried out by NASA again in 2015 to correct for some reported errors from the first test, but thrust was surprisingly recorded again despite the corrections.  Also, an EmDrive paper has finally been accepted by peer review by the American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics, granting the technology more authority from critics.

Interestingly enough, legal developments have also granted significant legitimacy to the EmDrive.  Roger Shawyer currently has three patents granted on the EmDrive, while two more are still going through the patent process.  Being granted three patents from the UK IP Office means that the physics behind the EmDrive has been thoroughly examined and was found to not violate the laws of physics, as such a violation would inevitably have lead to the patent applications being denied.  Furthermore, Shawyer’s most recent patent, as of October 12th, was filed more than 18 months ago, allowing the patent office to disclose the information contained to the public.  Such a public disclosure should in turn allow for greater scrutiny of Shawyer’s more recent efforts in developing the EmDrive.

The implications of the EmDrive being accepted as a legitimate technology are immense.  First of all, a working propellantless propulsion system would allow for future space craft to be much lighter and cheaper without requiring large amounts of rocket fuel for each take off.  It also would allow for much faster space travel, possibly allowing humans to reach the outer limits of our solar system in a matter of years and Mars within only a few months.  Furthermore, outside its space propulsion systems applications, there’s really no limit to what it may be applied to.

Despite passing several hurdles in recent years, however, the EmDrive is still a long way from leading us to interstellar travel.  The testing conducted by NASA, while showing positive results, also recorded thrust of a force just slightly higher than the magnitude of error for the experiment.  Also, while this positive result allowed it to pass peer review, that does not necessarily mean that the technology is sound and will not later be found to have flaws.  In all likelihood, the chances of a new technology being discovered that, for the first time, violates the laws of physics as we have known them for hundreds of years is a far less likely result than finding some sort of experimental error in the technology.  But maybe, just maybe, this could be the end of Newtonian physics as we know it.


The “Fourth Industrial Revolution”: Queue Chaos And Disarray

Rhett Schwichtenberg, MJLST Staffer

We are all familiar with Hollywood’s drastic miscalculations when predicting the future. In Timecop, which took place in 2004, time-travel was the conventional means of transportation. In the world of Marty McFly, 2015 marked the year where hoverboards were the standard means of transportation. In 2001: A Space Odyssey, the moon was colonized by 2001. The list goes on. While we [unfortunately] see none of this today, perhaps Hollywood was not too far off.

Today, robots are shaping the way we live and have contributed a world of good to society. While Google Glass might have been an utter failure, Google’s Self-Driving Car Project is making fast advances to provide the world with hand-free, piece-of-mind driving. Taxi giant, Uber, has also entered the self-driving market with the implementation of self-driving Uber vehicles in the Pittsburgh market. Self-driving technology has the ability to eliminate the extreme and unnecessary amount of traffic deaths occurring every day in addition to providing a reliable mode of transportation for individuals that cannot operate a vehicle. Apart from the transportation industry, robots are growing rapidly in nearly every industry including the agriculture, food service, manufacturing, military, and rehabilitation industries.

Earlier this year, the EU made a proposal calling for the classification of autonomous  robots as “electronic persons.” If codified, this proposal could bestow legal rights upon robots, require companies to pay a social security tax for using them, and impose a liability insurance upon companies using robots in order to protect against any harm they might cause. While ridiculed by many, is there no merit in this proposal?

The age of robotics that is currently among us is being referred to as the “fourth industrial revolution” by economists. The first industrial revolution introduced steam power, the second, electric power, and the third, electronics and information technology. While the past three industrial revolutions have advanced at a linear rate (occurring approximately one-hundred years apart) the current revolution is advancing exponentially. Previous technology has threatened blue-collar jobs, but has never caused us to question whether jobs will even exist in the near future. With the implementation of quantum computing looming, the professionals in scientific and medical fields might experience issues of job security.

Alan Manning, leading author in labor economics and professor at the London School of Economics, seems to remain calm, cool, and collected when tasked with answering the question of how autonomy will affect the labor market. He strongly opines that such technology should not be taxed. Implementing the proposed tax will slow the advancement and use of such technology. Instead, Manning expects investment in modern technology to increase productivity and, at worst, leave the labor market where it currently stands. Manning believes the expert prediction that 47% of jobs will be threatened by autonomic robots is just that, a mere prediction. He retorts that such a prediction is grounded in ignorance rather than educated measures. Manning states that the entire job market must be looked at, not just the specific occupations that will see job reduction. Looking at the job market as a whole, Manning admits that jobs will be lost in some areas, but trusts that new jobs will arise due to an increase in companies’ spending power through the use of autonomic robotics.

So given that autonomic robotics and advanced computing technology is already written in our future, what are the implications of such technology? The simple answer is: we must wait and see.


Copycats to Copycows: The Cloned Livestock Industry Emergence

Ryan Dowell, MJLST Staffer

In the two decades since Dolly, a comically named sheep, animal cloning has remained little more than fiction to the average person. Behind the scenes, however, the field has progressed tremendously.  Success rates today are estimated to be 70% or higher, compared to less than half a percent when cloning Dolly and her siblings. As the technique has been perfected, the obvious result has occurred: animal cloning has become a nascent industry.

Cloning has long been present in human society, in a form that many people may not recognize: plants. From simple home-garden cutting & replanting to industrial-scale cultivation from tissue samples; these techniques produce genetically identical individuals (i.e. clones) used as floral cultivars, tree planting, and especially foods. A large number of plants grown for human consumption are clones—which means that you, dear reader, have probably eaten a clone. Plant cloning has not encountered the same scrutiny as that with animals, perhaps due to its natural occurrence or millennia-long history of human use.

Dolly was merely the proverbial ‘dipping our toe into’ animal cloning. True to the writings of Michael Crichton (or the movies, if one so prefers), it didn’t take long for Jurassic Park-esque attempts to clone endangered and extinct animals. Cloning was not limited to such an idealistic use—a market emerged. Grieving pet owners could, at significant cost, get clones of their beloved pets. Despite the cost (still a five-digit price tag), a market for such services has continued to develop. Further demonstrating the human capacity for expensive animal-keeping hobbies, equine cloning has emerged as a means to “insure that prized horse and its unique qualities.” If one were to stop here, cloning seems to be a niche market for the wealthy.

The emerging cloning industry has not stopped at pets and exotic creatures. With the science complete and industrial production moving forward, livestock cloning is set to erupt in the coming years. A ‘cloning factory’ is opening in China. This factory is intended to produce not only pets and horses, but also prime beef cattle and drug-sniffing dogs. Following the same reasoning underlying farming’s predilection for plant clones, elimination of genetic variations could significantly improve farming techniques—maximizing yield, minimizing labor and resource inputs, matching strains to specific regions, and so on. In a world with mounting concern over the meat sustainability, improvements to production are key and cloning provides the means to significantly advance the field.

In many emerging fields, law and regulation react to the development and often impede progress. Fortunately, the issue of animal cloning has already been addressed—the FDA regulates the field & was essentially prescient. In 2008, the FDA released a guidance stating “meat and milk from cow, pig, and goat clones and the offspring of any animal clones are as safe as food we eat every day.” The FDA examined cloning (also known as somatic cell nuclear transfer or SCNT), under the umbrella of assisted reproductive technologies (ART), which have long been utilized by farmers. The analysis noted that these animals would have essentially identical genetics to the source, unless reprogramming occurred (which can be done with other ARTs); that risk associated with the cloned animals is no different than the source organism. It was noted that cloned offspring have higher risk of adverse health issues early in life compared to offspring from other ARTs. However, none of these issues are unique to clones and other than early-life issues, clones are as healthy as non-clones. Livestock cloning has passed FDA scrutiny  and manufacturing infrastructure is in place; it is poised to develop rapidly.

Public opinions may prove to be the final hurdle for livestock cloning. If one tells a fruit-eater that he or she is eating a clone (or as a botanist might put it the ovary of a clone), the fruit-eater will likely be unaware of this fact and less than pleased that his or her enjoyment of that fruit has been disrupted by the interjection. Alternatively, a substantial portion of the population believes GMOs are not safe for them to consume, which is untrue (see herehere, here, here, and here). A similar scenario to either of these might present itself here: (1) everyone blissfully consumes food without the need for nitty-gritty detail of its origin (since there is no discernable or material difference), or (2) misinformation is allowed to spread and ‘poison the well.’ The deciding factor will likely be education; the current state of affairs presents the opportunity to preemptively educate the public on the FDA’s findings and regulations.

Livestock cloning is poised to expand rapidly in the future and now we face a crucial time in its acceptance: a public educated on the issue will be equipped to fairly determine whether such livestock should be consumed, without a torrent of pseudo-science obscuring the decision. The FDA has examined clones and found them to be nearly identical to non-clones (pun very much intended) in regards to human consumption.

 


Three’s a Crowd: Identifying the Shifting Parental Rights in Three-Parent Babies

Daniel Green, MJLST Staffer

Once again, science is spurring the law to adapt in ways it never could have predicted. A baby boy was recently born with genetic material of three different people. Aside from being born slightly premature, the now three-month-old child is very healthy. Even though three-parent techniques have been used before, this child marked the first healthy birth.

Given the obvious religious, safety, and ethical disputes behind such a medical procedure it may seem unclear as to why anyone would want to go through with it. The answer, however, avoids the arguments that the procedure is simply done to “play God” or for polyamorous relationships. The mother underwent the treatment to ensure both the happiness of parents and the health the child.

In this instance, the mother carried genetic defects identified to cause Leigh syndrome. This disorder which affects the brain resulted in the mother having had four pregnancy losses in addition to the death of two previous children at the ages of 8 months and 6 years. Leigh syndrome is caused by defects in a cells mitochondria, and the three-parent treatment was able to bypass the damaged mitochondrial DNA.

The process involves implanting the mother’s DNA into an egg from a donor. The egg has the donor’s main genetic DNA removed prior. The egg is then fertilized with sperm from the father. This process allows the DNA from the mother to pass down virtually unchanged since “mitochondrial DNA makes up less than 1% of the total cellular DNA.” However, small amounts of the donor’s mitochondrial DNA are still left throughout the child’s body.

The treatment was done in Mexico involving a team of fertility specialists from the United States and Great Britain. The procedure took place in Mexico since the treatment used has not yet been approved in the United States by the Food and Drug Administration, but this may not be the case for long due, in part, to recent successes. Another indicator of this possible change is that the treatment has already been approved in Britain.

Given this rapidly changing landscape, the law, in particular regarding parental rights, needs to somehow catch up quickly on an incredibly complex topic. As the donor parent will only be contributing 37 genes out of the total 22,000, it is likely that a donor’s right will be the most contested. Given the precedent already set forth, courts may adopt one of several strategies if and when three-parent babies are no longer barred in the United States.

  1. The donor parent has no legal claims: This would be similar to the mostly commonly accepted view concerning to sperm donors. In most states, if a sperm is donated through a licensed medical professional then the donor loses all legal claims to the child unless the parents are married. It seems logical that the treatment of an egg donor, in a three-parent situation, would be similar given what the term “donor” implies. Great Britain, which has already approved the three-parent treatment, has already adopted a stance similar to this. However, states are in contention regarding of parental rights and even custody of traditional style egg donors. Given the distribution of DNA it may be easier for a court to rule against the egg donor, but this is still very unclear.
  1. The donor parent has an equal claim to the child: California has already passed a version of a three-parent law, but this was mainly for same-sex couples who wish to have the donor on the birth certificate as well. However, the process leaves the door open for unintended parents, such as the donors, to assert claims over a child. In such a case, a court may find that, despite the objections of two parents, the donor has a right to be considered as a parent. Instances of this have already come up in traditional sperm and egg donation. Such conflicts could create a great degree of instability for the life of the child.
  1. The parties agree through a contract prior to the treatment as to what claims exist: The last apparent possibility is that parties may be able to contractually agree what their family is to look like. This would likely create the most amiable way to go about the process, but it is time-consuming and still may run into problems with the existing laws of certain states.

Clearly, there is no solid answer regarding three-parent babies even though three-parent birth certificates are already becoming more common in the United States. It seems like it is only a matter of time before three-parent babies are introduced into the culture as well. This leaves the question as to whether the law will be ready in time so as to hopefully create a circumstance that, whatever the family may look like, is best for the child.