This Paper joins the debate about inequality and public management reform. Authors have been thinking about equality—and inequality—mostly in terms of income and wealth and less in terms of living and working conditions, e.g. the digital divide. Adding to the literature about inequality in working conditions, this Paper shows that a significant amount of value, or ‘shadow’ income, can be perceived from a person’s working conditions, and this is the case of public employees globally.
The purpose of punishment is not served when the criminal justice system prosecutes poor, and often undereducated, parents for the unintended deaths of their children. Punishment as retribution is excessive for an already grieving parent, and an act cannot be deterred, either specifically to the offender or generally to society, if it was unintended in the first place. Finally, incapacitating parents by way of imprisonment does not ultimately serve the social good because their imprisonment sets up their surviving children for increased risk factors. Punishing a parent who has already received the worst punishment of all—loss of a child—cannot be justified.